Virology is the investigation of infections - submicroscopic, parasitic particles of hereditary material contained in a protein coat and infection like operators. Virology is thought to be a subfield of microbiology or of drug. Examination of contaminations is the way that they cause various imperative overwhelming ailments, among them the customary cold, influenza, rabies, measles, numerous sorts of detachment of the entrails, hepatitis, Dengue fever, yellow fever, polio, smallpox and AIDS. Herpes simplex causes mouth rankles and genital herpes and is under investigation as a possible factor in Alzheimer's. Ebb and flow explore in virology incorporates the examination of system of HIV replication and pathogenesis .Diseases, for example, prion sicknesses, Alzheimer's infection and HIV-1-related dementia. Irresistible illnesses, otherwise called transmissible sickness or transferable disease signs of contamination influence the entire body by and large, for example, weariness, loss of craving, weight reduction, fevers, night sweats, chills, a throbbing painfulness. Others are particular to singular body parts, for example, skin rashes, hacking, or a runny nose. They can be averted by wearing outfits, and wearing face veils can help keep diseases from being passed starting with one individual then onto the next.
Molecular Virology, which deals with molecular level of biochemistry of viruses and how they replicate in host cells. Viruses can infect the all forms of microorganisms to animals and plants, which results viruses have extent biological diversity than Monera, Protista, Plantae, Fungi and Animalia. This field leads to understand how new viruses are emerging, interacting with hosts and causes of infectious diseases. It helps in the study and construction of viral vectors by converging with r-DNA or recombinant DNA technology which can be develop the new traits of agricultural and medicinal plants, domestic animals and beneficial microorganisms, those which can meet the needs of wellbeing of human.
Virology and Immunology creates immunizations and therapeutics against viral pathogens, and decides how infections repeat and spread through fundamental and connected research. Virology is the branch of pharmaceutical worried about the investigation of infections and viral diseases. Immunology is the branch of biomedicine worried about the structure and capacity of the safe framework ,intrinsic and acquired invulnerability ,the substantial qualification of self from oneself and lab procedures including the interaction of antigens with particular antibodies. Virology and Mycology, Journal of Immunological Techniques in Infectious Diseases, Journal of Immunobiology, Journal of AIDS and Clinical Research, Journal of Infectious Diseases and Treatment, Journal of Infectious Diseases and Therapy, Allergy, Asthma and Clinical Immunology, Annals of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology, Annals of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology, APMIS : act pathological, microbiological, et immunological Scandinavia, Central European Journal of Public Health, Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology. Current Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Egyptian Journal of Immunology.
A bacteriophage is a type of virus that infects bacteria. In fact, the word "bacteriophage" literally means "bacteria eater," because bacteriophages destroy their host cells. Bacteriophages are composed of proteins that encapsulate a DNA or RNA genome, and may have relatively simple or elaborate structures. Bacteriophages are among the most common and diverse entities in the biosphere. Phages are widely distributed in locations populated by bacterial hosts, such as soil or the intestines of animals. They have been used for over 90 years as an alternative to antibiotics in the former Soviet Union and Central Europe, as well as in France. They are seen as a possible therapy against multi-drug-resistant strains of many bacteria. Twort and d'Herelle began to use phages in treating human bacterial diseases such as bubonic plague and cholera. Before antibiotics were discovered, there was considerable research on bacteriophages as a treatment for human bacterial diseases. Bacteriophages attack only their host bacteria, not human cells, so they are potentially good candidates to treat bacterial diseases in humans.
Bacterial pathogenesis is the process by which bacteria infect and cause disease in a host. Not all bacteria are pathogens and have the ability for pathogenesis (also known as virulence). Pathogenic bacteria utilise a number of mechanisms to cause disease in human hosts. Bacterial pathogens express a wide range of molecules that bind host cell targets to facilitate a variety of different host responses. The molecular strategies used by bacteria to interact with the host can be unique to specific pathogens or conserved across several different species. A key to fighting bacterial disease is the identification and characterisation of all these different strategies. The availability of complete genome sequences for several bacterial pathogens coupled with bioinformatics will lead to significant advances toward this goal. There are several bacterial pathogenic diseases. One among them is tuberculosis which is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It includes other pathogens of bacteria such as Streptococcus and Pseudomonas. These pathogens and form of bacteria causes many foodborne illnesses and infections such as tetanus, typhoid fever and diphtheria. Microbes express their pathogenicity by means of their virulence. The determinants of virulence of a pathogen are any of its genetic or biochemical or structural features that enable it to produce disease in a host. In bacterial host mediated pathogenesis, (e.g., tuberculosis), tissue damage results from the toxic mediators released by lymphoid cells rather than from bacterial toxins.
Infectious diseases are disorders caused by organisms - such as bacteria, viruses, fungi or parasites. Many organisms live in and on our bodies. They're normally harmless or even helpful, but under certain conditions, some organisms may cause disease. Some infectious diseases can be passed from person to person. Some are transmitted by bites from insects or animals. And others are acquired by ingesting contaminated food or water or being exposed to organisms in the environment. Signs and symptoms vary depending on the organism causing the infection, but often include fever and fatigue. Mild infections may respond to rest and home remedies, while some life-threatening infections may require hospitalization. Many infectious diseases, such as measles and chickenpox, can be prevented by vaccines. Frequent and thorough hand-washing also helps protect you from most infectious diseases.
Neuroinfectious Disease is an infection of nervous system that covers Brain and Spinal cord. The causative agents for neuroinfections may be Bacteria, fungi, viruses, proins and occasionally protozoa or parasites, infection of brain results in inflammation like encephalitis, meningitis, Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, HIV-associated neurodegeneration, Neurosarcoidosis, HTLV 1 myelopathy hereditary spastic paraparesis and Transverse myelitis. Symptoms of bacterial or fungal central nervous system infections may include: Severe headache, Back pain, Stiff neck, Confusion, Weakness, Fever, Seizures and Paralysis whereas viral central nervous system Symptoms Fever Irritability, Not wanting to eat, High-pitched cry, Head and neck pain and Seizures.
Infectious diseases can be caused by bacteria, virus, fungi and parasites through direct contact, indirect contact, insect bites and food contamination. Each infectious disease has its own specific signs and symptoms. General signs and symptoms common to many infectious diseases include fever, diarrhea, fatigue and muscle aches.
- Infectious disease has its own specific signs
- Symptoms like fever, diarrhea, fatigue and muscle aches
Infectious diseases prevention and control is helpful to prevent the transmission of infectious diseases. Aseptic technique is normally applied to prevent the infections caused by different means. Sterilization is another process of killing microorganisms by the application of heat. Disinfection is the process of killing harmful microorganisms. Some infectious diseases can be prevented by avoiding direct contact with the contagious person. Infections can also be controlled and prevented by creating public awareness on various infectious diseases and their outbreaks. Infections can be cured by various antimicrobials.
Medical diagnosis is the process of determining which disease or condition explains a person's symptoms and signs. Laboratory tests may identify organisms directly (e.g., visually, using a microscope growing the organism in culture) or indirectly (e.g., identifying antibodies to the organism). General types of tests include microscopy, culture and immunologic tests (agglutination tests such as latex agglutination, enzyme immunoassays, western blot, precipitation tests and complement fixation tests) and nucleic acid/ non nucleic acid based identification methods. Sub types of diagnoses include clinical, laboratory, radiology, principal and admitting diagnosis. Advanced methods have been implemented to diagnose the infection in any part of the body. Examples include biomarkers/ elisa test/ chest x ray/ skin biopsy/ tympanometry and tympanocentesis.
Infectious diseases are caused by microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, fungi or parasites. Micro-organisms that cause disease are collectively called pathogens and can spread between individuals. They eventually lead to disease by disrupting normal bodily processes and/or by stimulating the immune system to produce a defensive response i.e. high fever, inflammation and cough.
Respiratory tract infection refers to a number of infectious diseases involving the respiratory tract. An infection of this type is normally further classified as an Upper respiratory tract infection (URI or URTI) or a lower respiratory tract infection (LRI or LRTI). Lower respiratory infections, such as pneumonia, can cause more serious conditions than upper respiratory infections, such as the common cold. A variety of viruses cause different types of respiratory infections. Rhinovirus, coronavirus and adenovirus are the leading causes of the common cold. Influenza viruses infect the upper respiratory system and sometimes spread to the lungs causing pneumonia. Another virus called the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes a respiratory infection called bronchiolitis in infants and toddlers. The symptoms of bronchiolitis include dry cough, rapid breathing and wheezing, a high-pitched sound sick children make when exhaling.
Pediatric infectious diseases/ childhood infectious diseases are the infectious diseases which are caused in children of different age groups. Pediatric infectious diseases specialist's takes care of the infections occurring in children and the treatment methods vary for children from adults.
- Caused in children of different age groups
- Treatment methods vary for children from adults
The anti-infective therapy is the treatment given against any microbial infections. The anti-infective therapy includes antibacterial, antifungals, antiprotozoans or antibiotics along with the proficient surgical procedures. During an anti-microbial therapy it is very important to understand the difference between the empiric and definitive therapy.
Bioweapons risk could incorporate the consider arrival of an organic operator by aggressors that causes at least one wide range of infections. The utilization of compelling immunizations would prone to secure lives and breaking point malady spread in an organic weapons crisis. Authorized antibodies are at present accessible for a couple of dangers, for example, Bacillus anthracis and smallpox, and research is in progress to create and deliver immunizations for different dangers, for example, tularaemia, Ebola infection, and Marburg infection.
Emerging infectious diseases are those due to newly identified and previously unknown infections which cause public health problems either locally or internationally
Emerging infectious disease: Newly identified & previously unknown infectious agents that cause public health problems either locally or internationally
Re?emerging infectious disease: Infectious agents that have been known for some time, had fallen to such low levels that they were no longer considered public health problems & are now showing upward trends in incidence or prevalence worldwide or have appeared in areas where they were not previously found.
- Nonspecific Mechanisms - Specific Mechanisms - Immunity - Safe Water - Sewage Treatment and Disposal
Vaccination is more important in our life for keeping us healthy. It helps us to fight against many chronic diseases like small pox, measles, Influenza, etc. The eradication of small pox is highly achieved by the vaccine discovery. A Vaccine contains a disease causing microorganism like bacteria and viruses. The agents present in the vaccine when vaccinated stimulate the immune system and it gets recognized and the body's immune system eliminates the infection. But Vaccines remain elusive for the treatment of many important diseases like Herpes, Malaria, Ebola, HIV, etc. This Conference brings out the knowledge about the recent research and future aspects of Vaccines.
Infectious diseases vaccines are the vaccines which prevent the infectious diseases and infectious diseases like diphtheria, haemophilus influenzae serotype b infection, hepatitis b, measles, meningitis, mumps, pertussis, poliomyelitis, rubella, tetanus, tuberculosis and yellow fever are preventable through vaccines.
Conventionally, stabilization of prophylactic vaccines have been a main attraction for the scientific and research communities. International health care organizations have provided funds for this effort for more than forty years. Moreover, stability has been linked with the temperature surrounding the vaccine vial, with not much attention being paid towards coinciding environmental parameters.
Recently, the advantages of the electronic time-temperature indicator [eTTI] have been well described. In all probability eTTI would not be proficient enough at monitoring the evaporative and radiative transfer of heat from the atmosphere. Monitoring temperature without a simultaneous estimate of humidity is often very erratic.
Antimicrobial/ Antibiotic/ Antibiotic resistance is rising to dangerously high levels in all parts of the world. New resistance mechanisms are emerging and spreading globally, threatening our ability to treat common infectious diseases. Antibiotic resistance occurs when an antibiotic has lost its ability to effectively control or kill bacterial growth; in other words, the bacteria are "resistant" and continue to multiply in the presence of therapeutic levels of an antibiotic.
Ebola viral infection is caused by virus transmitted through body fluids and through air. It occurs rarely but it is very deadly which results in death and outbreak. Ebola virus disease symptoms are very severe which appears in 2-3 days. Ebola primary symptoms include fever, sore throat, muscular pain and headaches then followed by vomiting, diarrhea, rash, decreased function of the liver and kidneys then loss of blood internally and externally finally leading to low blood pressure and fluid loss resulting in death. Zika virus disease is caused by a virus transmitted primarily by aedes mosquitoes. People with zika virus disease can have symptoms including mild fever, skin rash, conjunctivitis, muscle and joint pain and malaise or headache.
- There are a number of infections and cancers that can develop in people who are living with HIV. There are infections that can be life threatening. These are also known as opportunistic infections. The more common life-threatening infections include a lung infection called Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP), an eye infection caused by cytomegalovirus (CMV), a brain infection called toxoplasmosis, and a generalized infection called Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC).
- Malaria is a mosquito borne infectious disease affecting humans and other animals caused by parasitic protozoans (a group of single celled microorganisms) belonging to the plasmodium type. Malaria symptoms typically include fever, fatigue, vomiting and headaches which can be observed in 10-15 after being bitten by mosquito. In severe cases it can cause yellow skin, seizures, comaor and even death.
- Tuberculosis is a bacterial infection caused by a bacterium called mycobacterium tuberculosis which spread through the lymph nodes and blood stream to any organ in your body. It is most commonly found in the lungs which attack the lungs and it can also attack any part of the body such as the kidney, spine and brain.
- Mycobacteria are a type of germ. There are many different kinds. The most common one causes tuberculosis. Another one causes leprosy. Still others cause infections that are called atypical mycobacterial infections. They aren't "typical" because they don't cause tuberculosis. But they can still harm people, especially people with other problems that affect their immunity, such as AIDS.
Animal infectious diseases/ zoonosis are important threat to human health since the emergence of human diseases is dominated by zoonotic pathogens. Infectious diseases affect livestock and also wild animals focusing on characterizing the conditions for the pathogen spread and maintenance in the host population.
Public awareness of infectious diseases plays a crucial role in disease control; a lack of feasible information of infectious diseases leads to reduced detection rates, the disruption of treatment, partiality and stigma. Therefore, to abolish the spread of such epidemic calamity the government of respective countries launches specific national disease control plans, using posters, advertisements on television and printed media and other methods to promote the awareness of these diseases in the local population. The appraisal of the awareness levels in rural areas is very important because it help to determine the result of preceding prevention steps made by the government and benchmark the need for arbitrations.