Every year, lives are lost because of the spread of infections in hospitals. Health care workers can take steps to prevent the spread of infectious diseases. These steps are part of infection control. Infection prevention and control measures aim to ensure the protection of those who might be vulnerable to acquiring an infection both in the general community and while receiving care due to health problems, in a range of settings. The basic principle of infection prevention and control is hygiene. Healthcare personnel might need to take additional infection control steps if a PUI or patient with confirmed EVD has other conditions or illnesses caused by specific infectious diseases, such as tuberculosis. Healthcare personnel can be exposed to Ebola virus by touching a patient’s body fluids, contaminated medical supplies and equipment, or contaminated environmental surfaces. Splashes to unprotected mucous membranes (for example, the eyes, nose, or mouth) are particularly hazardous.
Procedures that can increase environmental contamination with infectious material or create aerosols should be minimized. healthcare personnel (HCP) refers all people, paid and unpaid, working in healthcare settings who have the potential for exposure to patients and/or to infectious materials, including body substances, contaminated medical supplies and equipment, contaminated environmental surfaces, or aerosols generated during certain medical procedures. HCP include, but are not limited to, physicians, nurses, nursing assistants, therapists, technicians, emergency medical service personnel, dental personnel, pharmacists, laboratory personnel, autopsy personnel, students and trainees, contractual personnel, home healthcare personnel, and people not directly involved in patient care (clerical, dietary, housekeeping, laundry, security, maintenance, billing, chaplains, and volunteers) but potentially exposed to infectious agents that can be transmitted to and from HCP and patients.
The deadliest Ebola outbreak in recorded history is happening right now. The outbreak is unprecedented both in the number of cases and in its geographic scope. And so far, it doesn't look like it's slowing down.
The outbreak has now hit three countries: Guinea, Sierra Leone, and Liberia. And the virus — which starts off with flu-like symptoms and often ends with horrific hemorrhaging — has infected about 600 people and killed an estimated 367 since this winter, according to the numbers on June 26 from the World Health Organization.
The global market for infectious disease treatments was valued at $90.4 billion in 2009. This market is expected to increase at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 8.8% to reach $138 billion in 2014. The largest market share belongs to antibiotic treatments for bacterial and fungal diseases at 53% of the total infectious disease treatment market. Fungal disease treatments will experience a slightly higher compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 6.2%, from $4.6 billion in 2009 to $6.2 billion in 2014. Viral disease treatments will have the fastest compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 12.1%, increasing from nearly $45 billion in 2009 to $79 billion in 2014.
|Bayer Healthcare Pharmaceuticals||€ 39.76 Billion|
|Pfizer||US $ 51.584 Billion|
|Allergan||US $ 6,300.4 Million|
|GlaxoSmithKline||€ 25.602 Billion|
|Valeant Pharmaceuticals||US $ 3.5 Billion|
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) Procurement and Grants Office (PGO) awards over 25,000 acquisition and assistance actions each year and obligates approximately $11 billion in federal funds. PGO aids in achieving CDC’s mission by quickly and effectively allocating funds to where they are needed. In its Pledge to the American People, CDC commits to being a diligent steward of the funds entrusted to the Agency. PGO ensures this pledge remains intact. To learn more about PGO, please review our FY 2014 Annual Report , Acquisition Snapshot , and Assistance Snapshot.
The global market for infectious disease diagnostic, vaccine and pharmaceutical products was $59.2 billion in 2011 and $66.4 billion in 2012. Market growth looks promising; the overall market value for 2017 is projected to be $96.8 billion after increasing at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 7.8%. The demographic transition is associated with an epidemiological transition in the causes and age of death. A predominant feature of this transition is a decrease in the number of deadly infections occurring during childhood. On the contrary, it is projected that, in 2020, three-quarters of all deaths in developing countries could be due to age-associated diseases. These are predominantly non-communicable diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, and diabetes. What is the role of infection in the death of elderly individuals? Statistics from the WHO suggest that, in Europe and the United States, ∼5% of the population >60 years old will die as a consequence of infection, compared with ~20% in Africa.
However, although this relative difference in the importance of infection as a cause of death in industrialized countries versus developing countries is certainly relevant, the absolute numbers should be regarded with caution. Indeed, although studies using death certificates to identify causes of death usually find a relatively low importance of infection in industrialized countries, autopsy studies suggest a much higher contribution of infections to the overall causes of death (20%–30%). In the developing world, the leading infectious causes of death are respiratory tract infections, diarrheal diseases, tuberculosis, malaria, and AIDS, which together represent >90% of deaths. The remaining 10% are due to tropical diseases and various other infections. In industrialized countries, respiratory tract infections, bloodstream infections, urinary tract infections, and infections of the digestive system represent 90% of infection-related deaths; other diseases such as tuberculosis, hepatitis B and C, diarrheal diseases, and AIDS represent nearly all of the remaining 10%. As already stated by Kalache in 1996, many infectious diseases “no longer kill but neither do they die”. This aphorism is also a reminder that the impact of infectious diseases should not only be measured by mortality rate, but also by morbidity and quality of life, particularly in the aging population. These parameters are much more difficult to assess objectively, but understanding them will be increasingly important in the future.
When we think of ancient Rome, we imagine an imperial capital consists of impressive marble structures and luxurious dwellings. Indeed, at the height of the empire (around 150 CE)
Rome was the largest city in the Mediterranean, with a population of approximately one million. Its metropolitan center was filled with awe-inspiring buildings, which proclaimed the power and glory of the Empire: her Coliseum, the Roman Forum, public bathes, and the monumental markets built by the emperor Trajan.
Rome had wealthiest residents lived in richly appointed homes located in the finest neighborhoods and commanding impressive views of the Tiber located in the finest neighborhoods an commanding impressive views of the Timber River. What we tend not to consider is the fact that this privileged life-style was enjoyed by only about 5% of robe's population, with the remaining 95% living at or below the poverty level.